# Lino Project: USB tests

The Lino board was correctly made and roughly tested. But now, how can I see how correctly performs? By simply integrating the load (power LEDs) and the PC environment to a complete working system. In this article will be provided a summary of these various steps, just to keep rtace of the progresses.

The load is made by 4 Glighter-S that are powering as many power LEDs. I grouped them in a proto PCB like in picture below:

These 4 boards are simply connected to the same power line, with 4 control wires that are connected th Lino. Each of their output is connectet to a single LED, with the result of 4 LEDs in total driven singularly by Lino.

### The finger test

Now, moving to the board that actually carry the LEDs, I felt the need to change some things. When doing my math, I realized that a small heatsink could work keeping the LEDs cool enough to keep them alive, as you can see here:

This “cool enough” is not enough to pass the so called finger test: this test is considered to be failed if you can’t stand a finger on the heatsink or any surface. If this happens, we are likely more than 65°C, depending on what is it your job, if you are a farmer maybe you have thicker skin and maybe you are sensible to higher temperatures.With this one, we are passing 80°C using my IR thermometer. My finger is definetely hopeless.

Since the heatsink actually shall be touched during the usage and my finger must not be burned, I needed to ovesize the heatsink itself. With a new one, the maximum temperature rise to no more than 60°C, and I extend by 20°C more the ambient operating temperature range of the LEDs:

As you can see, I need to think about the shape of the heatsink and the PCB. But for this test, what’s in the picture is acceptable.

## Turn on the board

The board can be driven using the USB/serial or with a single encoder. Herein I will show the serial test, and to generate the correct data pattern to be sent on the board, I wrote a simple Python script to simplify the testing. It uses Python 3+, exploits the pySerial and Tkinter module. Basically the Tkinter lib generates an HTML compatible color code and will be arrangend to an array sent throug the serial line, here emulated on USB. At every complete frame received, Lino will apply instantly the requested color. In other words, when receives the “stop character” described in the Lino protocol.

Here the complete assembled configuration, where the power supply is given from a 9V – 1.5A DC power supply that will be connected to the board.

Let’s connect the DC power jack and the USB to the Lino and to a PC running the Python script demo available here.

Run the script with Python 3.5+ and the following will be opened:

Just type the available COM that appears when you connect the board, a space mark and write the communication speed used by Lino. Press enter and the following appears:

It is in italian, but it is the intuitive and dummy default color table provided by Windows: select the right combination and press OK. Lino automatically displays the colors on the LEDs.

Note that it is implemented a white adjustment computed directly by the Lino’s microcontroller, the white component that controls the white LED it is not generated by the script: when all of the RGBs are greater than zero, there is a bit of white that will be reproduced using the fourth pure white LED, making it more realistic with respect the expectations. In this way I can generate any kind of white light shade. Awesome.

### Setting-up the prototype

To set up everything and test it in a more compact way, I thought to use a PVC panel. But at the moment they were missing. So to finish in the same day, I remembered that I have kept a light guide plate from an old LCD panel. I knew that wasn’t trash!

A light guide plate is a panel (in acrylic like material) with some dots that are intercepting the light from the side backlight and redirect, guiding it, it to the LCD, actually rotating the light path by 90° towards the LCD panel:

Then I have realized too late that I could make a photo before cutting the plane, so here is what remains of my panel, already cutted, bended and somehow abused:

Exactly, the old panel was used for all but lighting purposes. In the end, I can put everything in a uglyish case, sticked on the wall like a painting:

The video below shows the working system paired with the PC:

When only powered from USB, the firmware derates the total provided power to stay inside the power budget of 2.5W. This video shows the automatic power handler when disconnecting/connecting the main power supply:

# Lino Project

I am playing with LEDs for few month and during that time some little projects were born, but now I need a system to handle the logical part and the power distribution. I simply just can’t use an Arduino board, or any other development board: I need a proper power handling embedded in a small space, all in one PCB, with some particularly high power requirements. And being Arduino compatible. This is Lino.

It will be used to power up the Glighter-S modules in a compact fashion, finally reaching something similar to a complete lighting working system. What is important here, is that we have 255 combination per each color, plus an algorithm to emulate in RGB and pure white combination to generate pastel colors or shades of white. With such assumption, I do not use any LUT but instead I generate the color according to the HTML encoding executed on the Lino microcontroller.

### Project purpose and board review

This board is designed to power up any power LED, motor and/or anything which requires up to 10W and can be controlled in PWM. Lino supports in hardware the control through physical, glitch filtered, inputs like buttons and encoders.

In the picture below is shown the board with its main interfaces:

More protocols are supported onboard, like I2C and UART (real or through USB emulation). With the proper firmware running on Lino, terminal commands are supported using the serial protocol, connected with the Atmega (the main MCU) mainly in two ways: with USB through an emulated terminal, or directly with the microcontroller’s UART, supporting then any communication with a serial device, like the ESP8266 and with no additional circuitry, since everything is working at 3.3V.

Since this board can communicate using UART or I2C, this setup is scalable, making it capable to drive more Lino boards connected with each other.

## Board characteristics: the union of Atmel and Microchip in practice

Here is shown the main blocks of the board. It is a kind of celebration of the acquisition of Atmel from Microchip. It is used an Atmega328P microcontroller and the Microchip MCP2200 USB to Serial converter instead of the FTDI, which instead would costs truly a lot.

Below, the block diagram of the project and a picture which shows where physically things were arranged on the board:

Everything is almost self-explaining. Briefly, the HMI (Human-Machine Interface) can support a single Encoder with an integrated button to minimize the commands and user interface complexity, but with firmware mods can be anything else.

The controller core is the Atmega328P, which is used to keep an Arduino compatibility. With the low cost and well supported Microchip MCP2200 I can obtain a neat working system interfaced with any PC or serial device: in fact I have also a pure serial connector, with 3.3V voltage swings. For example it can talk with the famous ESP8266 with no additional circuitry.

A bit of more explanation is instead necessary for clarify the power handling.

### Dynamic power source selection

The backbone of this system is the dynamic power handling. When powered from an external supply, up to 10W can be provided to the load, while can be still controlled from the USB port. If this supply is not present, is still possible to drive the board using the USB power, which allows up to 2.5W.

The selection is performed by the MCU (green dashed line in pictuire below), while a default safe state is kept when the MCU is not driving the switch. All the voltages are monitored, in order to allow the firmware to make the right selection. The priority of the source selection is given to the external power source.

The USB power is limited, since this board can be used directly connected to a PC, able to provide, normally, no more than 2.5W per USB port. Therefore, to use the entire power capability, an external power supply shall be used.

Due to the extremely high input voltage range, the power source selection is achieved in the firmware while the hardware is fully protected against misbehaviours and short circuits. After all, it is a personal project and burning a board is tedious and I can’t afford this, prevention is better. As also in professional environments, anyway.

Below just a brief of the supply characteristics:

 Electrical characteristics Min Max Input voltage 3.3V 20V Maximum supported power (USB only) 2.5W Maximum supported power (Power Jack) 10W Maximum supported power (Power Jack + USB) 10W

#### Source selection logics

The main power supply shall be capable to provide the total power required from the load. If this supply voltage is above the minimum required of around 3V, Lino is powered up and will source from the main supply. If the USB is present, the MCU can chose from where source the power. If the main supply is lower than 3V and the USB is present and the USB is present, the power is absorbed from the USB cable, otherwise the voltage would be insufficient.

Since the USB it is used to exchange the USB Data, it is usually connected to a device that cannot provide more than 500mA per USB port, therefore the power delivered to the load shall be reduced down to 2.5W using the firmware (in this particular case, by reducing the duty cycle of the PWM which drives the load).

## The “Lino protocol” – Board demo interface

To have the board working, I setup a simple protocol used over the serial, but other physical line can be used, like I2C. I need to master even complex variations of the PWM sequence, also in a scalable way. For this reason I needed a proper protocol, with expansion potential, to open the possibilities to develop a proper higher level application in a simple way on a PC or any master controller side.

Moreover, as it will be explained, the data handled by this protocol is conceived to be developer friendly, where the developer is someone who will generate a proper software to achieve the desired data exchanged. It is not perfect, but it works.

### Physical Layer

It consist in an array of 18 bytes sent from a master PC or device (over serial/USB) made by the following sequence, from the first to the last byte sent, MSB to LSB:

[StartChar] [CTRL#00] [CTRL#01] [R#0] [R#1] [G#0] [G#1] [B#0] [B#1] [W#0] [W#1] [INT#0] [INT#1] [RES#00] [RES#01] [RES#10] [RES#11] [EndChar]

Where each byte is represented from LSB to MSB, the data is sent using UART (8 bits, 1 Start + 1 Stop bits, no parity), but can be transferred using any other simple protocol (I2C, SPI ecc).

Serial voltage levels swings are on 0V-3.3V.

### Data handling

The values inserted by the application or the user through the terminal are written in ASCII, but representing an hex format coded to save bytes. In other words, if the sender wants to send the value 254(decimal) to Lino, it will send the chars “F”(character) and “E”(character) or “f”(character) and “e”(character) on text terminal, representing the intention to send the 0xFE hex value. The first char sent is the MSB of the hex number; how each bit is transmitted is no more concerned here, but hidden in the physical layer described before, handled in UART. The chars sent are corresponding to ASCII codes, so on the serial lines are physically sent, in this example, the ASCII “70”(decimal) (for letter f)+”69″(decimal) for letter e.

On the board is made all the conversion reversed to actually compose the number 254. To ease the software front-end, the serial is completely case insensitive and look only for characters that can represent the hex numvers, so any character sent outside the range “0” to “9” and from “a” (or “A”) to “f” (or “F”) can be used in the firmware for synchronization, or can be discarded at run time but used by the user when sending data manually over the terminal for testing purposes.

Here below is listed the meaning of each byte:

1. StartChar: the char used to discriminate a begin of transmission after startup, or a StopChar, after a timeout or any subsequent StartChar in case of line issues
2. CTRL#00/#01: The combination of characters reserved for any auxiliary command. #00 is the MSB, #01 the LSB.
3. R#0/#1: channel Red data (from 0 to 0xFF). #0 is the MSB, #1 the LSB.
4. G#0/#1: channel Green data (from 0 to 0xFF). #0 is the MSB, #1 the LSB.
5. B#0/#1: channel Blue data (from 0 to 0xFF). #0 is the MSB, #1 the LSB.
6. W#0/#1: channel White data (from 0 to 0xFF). #0 is the MSB, #1 the LSB.
7. INT#0/#1: intensity which is applied to the RGBW channels (from 0 to 0x64 [100% in decimal]). #0 is the MSB, #1 the LSB.
8. RES#00/#01: reserved byte for any further necessity. #00 is the MSB, #01 the LSB.
9. RES#10/#11: reserved byte for any further necessity. #10 is the MSB, #11 the LSB.
10. EndChar: the char used to end the transmission and call the command interpreter on the receiver (Lino).

Each group of byte (numbered as #0#1, #00#01, #10#11) can be divided using a mark char (here the “.”, a dot) to make it more human readable the text on a terminal emulator, when debugging, testing and so on. These chars will enlarge the data transmission because it is a data overhead, but on the receiver side are completely invisible since are discarded, at run time.

These 3 examples can be actually copied in a terminal and sent as a text on Lino, moreover, these three commands are equivalent (colors are used to identified the fields):

$00.Aa.20.FF.bC.64.00.00#$00Aa20FFbc640000#
$00AA20FFBC640000# In which: – start char “$”
– the CTRL field is CTRL#00 = 0, CTRL#01 = 0
– the R field is R#0 = 0xA, R#1 = 0xA
– the G field is G#0 = 0x2, G#1 = 0x0
– the B field is B#0 = 0xF, B#1 = 0xF
– the W field is W#0 = 0xB, W#1 = 0xC
– the INT field is INT#0 = 0x6, INT#1 = 0x4
– the RES field is RES#00 = 0x0, RES#01 = 0x0, RES#10 = 0x0, RES#11 = 0x0
– stop char “#”

The colors are therefore represented adopting the HTML color compatibility 24bit coded. As example, the above frame will represent the following color:

at maximum intensity, and the additional pure white set to 87% to make the white component more realistic.

### Next steps

The next steps will be the usage of such board to control Glighter-S modules, but for now the hardware test is sufficient to proove that the system works, the MCU, the protocol and the serial too. More details will be provided as soon as a final release will be tested, and the protocol can be tested also more deeply in all its potential.

To be more precise, will be setup a prototyping system with Lino and 4 Glighter-S. These will be controlled by the already present initial firmware release running on Lino, and a Python script which generates the correct sequences according to a color selection made on a PC connected to Lino. All the test loads are designed in Glighter-S project page.

# Tiny, robust, low cost, fail-safe LED driver: the Glighter-S project

It has been a while since the last LED related article. Was experimented the linear current source, its pros and cons and the field of application. Now arises the need of a small version, handling the same high power, things that are contrapposed in the linear regulator. I need something that I can bring with me, connecting a bit of everywhere, potentially. Heatsinks were expensive, heavy and it is impossible to cover the entire voltage range without huge radiating elements and is also very low efficient. So what I need to do?

### A new board design

With the new version, the entire design is completely changed. I moved to a swiched solution, by exploiting an integrated buck converter controller.

The core is the Texas Instruments LM3405 buck controller, with a fixed sense resistor directly mouted on PCB. With some tricks, like using an external companion LDO boost voltage regulator, I can provide all the required drive voltage for the LM3405’s internal mosfet over an enormous input voltage range without damage or efficiency loss. More over, the output voltage required can be of any value from almost 0V to the input applied, therefore there is no concerns related to what minimum or maximum LED voltage I can use, matters only the current which the LED can withstand without generating the magic smoke.

The high switching frequency of 1.6MHz of the controller allow also to use small components: in the picture there is a reduced size inductor, mounted on pads designed to carry on the higher ones. This left me some flexibility on performance analysis and experimentation.

### Project summary: Glighter-S Power LED driver

• Technology: switching buck regulator
• Input voltage: 3V to 20V (note 1)
• Output voltage (LED Vf): 0.3V to 20V
• Sourced current: up to 1A (note 2)
• Size: 32mm x 21mm
• Efficiency: ~90% (note 3)
• Operating Temperature: -40°C to 60°C
• Safety features:
• Short circuit immune
• Open circuit immune
• Safe state (off) when no control is applied
• Control features:
• PWM control: voltage swing from <0.4V to >1.8V up to input voltage, max PWM frequency 5kHz
• Analog control: voltage swing from 0.4V to 1.8V. Outside these limits device is either shut off of fully on.
• Overtemperature protected
• It does not make the coffee, but the coffee made this. (note 4)

Note 1: active regulation starts from the forward LED voltage plus 0.6V. Full power is delivered from 4V on (device’s control voltages fully on)
Note 2: can be set by changing a resistor
Note 3:  with one led with a forward voltage of 3V is 83%. 90% can be achived my using more than 3 LEDs in series.
Note 4: with caffeine.

On the back of the board there is a brief indication of what is summarized above:

Regarding safety, if the output is shorted, the regulator instantly lower the output voltage avoiding failures. With open circuit, as any buck converter with a sense resistor removed, the output raise as the input voltage due to the broken feedback loop, but with no damage on components: when connecting the LEDs back again, the regulation starts “immediately” avoiding LED damage. Smooth delayed start of few microseconds is implemented when powering the board with the enable already active, to avoid high inrush currents, stressing also less the LED avoiding high current glitches.

It can be dimmed with an analog signal or through a PWM wave up to 5kHz. A greater frequency is just filtered away. Another safety feature is that when PWM pin is left floating or the wire is broken, is equipped with a pulldown in order to guarantee a device shutoff with no misbehaviors. If no control is needed, just connect the PWM pin safely to the input voltage to turn it always on.

### Wiring the LEDs

I wanted a very high power LEDs, but with a relatively low voltage, in order to try it also with low voltage batteries, lower than 6V. So I choose an LED with single diode chip, because when power LEDs have an high voltage (usually greater than 5V) is composed with multiple LEDs in series. My choice is a Luxeon Rebel LEDs, with a single diode, no series:

Each of these LEDs can take up to 700mA (1A peak), therefore I chosen the sense resistor on the board in order to achieve 700mA. I designed a board used as a satellite, mouting 4 LEDs, with the peculiarity of handling the thermal management of a global 9W LED lamp.

The LED board (a.k.a. satellite board) is straighforward: 8 pins, 4 anodes and 4 cathodes to drive each LED individually using 2 wires per LED connected to the driver. The A means anode (connect the +), K the cathode (connect the -). Below the RGBW LEDs soldered on the red, green, blue and white position.

On the back is mounted an heatsink capable of dissipating through natural convection up to 9W up to 40°C of ambient temperature. Bigger heatsink will extend the temperature range. But here the purpose is to have a small heatsink, and wasting time in my playground.

### Wiring the driver

Here is shown the board connections used to test the LEDs and the driver.

The input voltage was 20V from an old laptop power supply, the enable pin shorted to the 20V. I have connected 4 LEDs in series (one cathode on the next anode and so on), with a total forward voltage of around 12V, which means that in this configuration, the minimum supply voltage required was a bit higher than 12V, here 20V are provided. Since the leds in seried are dropping more than 3V (12V in total), the efficiency of the driver is near the 90%, because the ratio between internal losses and delivered power is lower.

The power absorbed is roughly 9W, I just can’t prove its light due to the exposure of the camera, but it is comparable of a white LED bulb of 10W commercially available.

Fun fact: these LEDs are also used in some Philips RGB lamps, with a similar thermal design of the PCB. That is somehow encouraging.

### Conclusion and next steps

There is no much else to say, but it works and it is a small accomplishment that allows me to play more with power LEDs, more easily than before, mainly because of the possibility to use, NOW, almost any power supply (from tablet’s charger, to laptop ones and any battery lying around).

Every microcontroller can drive these boards with no additional components. The absolute value on the pin have analog effect if inbetween 0.4V and 1.8V, while if lower than 0.4V shut off the driver, and if higher than 1.8v will fully turn on the device. Any board, 5V, 3.3V or 1.8V can drive this module even with a low voltage logic I/O pin or even using an DAC. I plan to continue the improvement, and maybe design a control board in order to control these drivers with a small power low-profile set-up.

# DS1307 RTC Emulator: triple library, one hack

I have already tried once in this article. An emulation of DS1307 chip, to hack in some way other devices, tricking them to talk with the DS1307 chip. I’ve tried to see if was meaningful to emulate a well-known RTC protocol in an MCU instead using the additional dedicated DS1307 RTC chip.

### What I have learned so far

I have experienced the real need of software organization, portability and layering. With this goal, I’ve previously developed a firmware for a Microchip PIC microcontroller, exploiting its RTC hardware and writing a layer that allow the MCU to be interfaced with systems that are designed to talk to the DS1307 (which instead was the PIC), without the need to put my hands on their code at all, since it was already designed and tested fot the DS1307 chips that I was emulating. Now I am oriented to use the emulator in more MCUs, so being really platform independent. Again, testing is not an issue, since there are tons of libraries developed for the DS1307, that I can use as testers.

The old library can be modified and used for other microcontrollers (MCUs), with few modifications, but the portability was rough. Moreover, only with an already present RTC hardware in the MCU was possible to emulate an RTC protocol.

In this new article, I will show a DS1307 emulator written in a more portable way. It was tested on an Atmel MCU and with no RTC hardware, but only a timer. Thus a bit of precision estimation shall be done, at the expense of greater portability, because all MCUs have a timer.

### The new library: technical specifications and host requirements

This library is absolutely non-blocking with the eventually present user code, that can exist simultaneously. This means that interrupt capabilities must be supported on the used MCU. And all MCUs have this capability.

The host MCU shall contain/support at least:

• Data Memory: 180 Bytes of RAM
• Program Memory: 2kB of Flash/EEPROM
• Oscillator: one external crystal
• 3 GPIO (one RTC output pin, two I2C pins)
• I2C bus, physical or emulated on 2 GPIO pins
• 1 Timer (better if supports counting in sleep mode)
• (Suggested) I2C physical
• (Suggested) External crystal oscillator AND internal RC oscillator
• (Suggested) 5V tolerant pins
• (Suggested) More memory space for additional user code

The user firmware can:

• Read/write data internally with DS1307 protocol with no bus or other components/masters required: this means that the emulation is also inside the MCU hosting the emulator itself.
• Let another MCU (master) to read/write with DS1307 protocol using I2C bus: this is the real emulation, where the MCU hosting the emulator library is connected on the bus, and is detected as the DS1307 and behaves like it.

#### Behavioral known discrepancies and fixing

At this moment the DS1307 emulator can do everything stated in RTC datasheet. Except that is improved, fixed the unpredicted behavior in case of illogical date and time written in DS1307 emulated register: in this library it mismatches the days and date, but nothing more strange.

But there is a discrepancy, it can output on a digital pin a restricted set of output waves at the moment:

• 1Hz tick indicator
• Digital write high
• Digital write low

Every other configurations like output 32768Hz, 8192Hz, 4096Hz are resulting in a digital write low. While the low power capability depends on the clock source and the supported functionalities of the selected timer.

## Firmware organization

The firmware was improved written in two main sections, the rtcProtocol and rtcHal files. The protocol handles the entire logical behavior of the emulated device, and is the core of the project. It can be used practically on any MCU. The Hal contains the calls to the device library, therefore the content of functions in this Hal library can vary, depending on the library available for the used MCU, the user preference and so on.

Here the basic blocks:

The application (in picture 1) is the code running on the MCU that could need the access of data. This library is non blocking and concurrent. This means that once you have set up the firmware, you could use it also internally and don’t bother of performance reduction due to external requests from masters in the I2C bus. In other words, using this RTC emulator your MCU can do a lot of other things rather than being only an emulated RTC device. The infinte loop in the main is therefore not required to be fullfilled, since everything works in ISR.

The hardware abstraction layer is everything is contained in the rtcHal file, and contains all the calls to the hardware. This is the only part that needs to be modified when changing the MCU adopted, and is this part is confined in the User Defined Library space.

The RTC application is the core of the emulator and never changes when changing the MCU. If RTC data is needed from the application rather than from bus requests,  can be used be means of the API Data. Otherwise, serves the I2C master requests, as the DS1307 original chip does. Accessing through the API Data, if before ending a read/write cycle a bus request arise, will be returned no valid data because is temporary reserved to the application.

## How to use it: API and user HAL calls

Library inclusion by one header file: rtc_protocol.h
The behavior is developed by studying the functional details of the original chip. That means a data handling in the same way, in order to guarantee the same data security. To be compatible, the firmware actually buffers all the time dependent data before write on the core variables, buffers all data before is is actually read and other actions like this to avoid rollovers and data corruption. So the library can be exploited by interacting with the API and User Defined Library (UDL).

### API.  Are provided mainly 6 user functions:

1. rtcProtocol_init() -> this call initialize all the system variables and hardware. Must be called once before use any functionality.
2. rtcProtocol_freezeUserData() -> prepare the data safely avoiding rollover
3. rtcProtocol_writeUserData(unsigned char byte) -> write one byte in the RTC
4. unsigned char data = rtcProtocol_readUserData() -> return one byte to data
5. rtcProtocol_setUserData() -> need to be called in order to apply RTC the data adjustment
6. rtcProtocol_tickIncrementISR() -> Every HALF SECOND, this call will increment the internal RTC tick

Follows an example on using it.
Read RTC data safely by issuing APIs in this order:

1. rtcProtocol_freezeUserData();
3. rtcProtocol_setUserData();
4. rtcProtocol_freezeUserData();
6. recall point 5 as many times is needed to read all the RTC bytes
7. rtcProtocol_setUserData();

Write RTC data safely by issuing APIs in this order:

1. rtcProtocol_freezeUserData();
3. rtcProtocol_writeUserData(data);
4. recall point 4 as many times is needed to write all the required RTC bytes
5. rtcProtocol_setUserData();

While in an independent way the rtcProtocol_tickIncrementISR() is called every 500ms.

For details of when and what write the address and write/read data you can read the official page at Maxim Integrated. Remember that the DS1307 initial conditions are also those one in the emulator library. Learn how to use the DS1307, and you can use the emulator!

### UDL.  Are provided few APIs that can be fullfilled with user defined code:

These functions must be fullfilled with the required drivers in order to drive the GPIO, timer and bus. The bus will work on interrupt in order to not block the RTC tick. It is not needed to know exactly when and how their are called, but just know what functionality put in what API. And this is written below:

1. rtcHal_setPinDigitalMode(void) -> initialize the used defined pin as a digital output pin. Like the pinMode(OUTPUT) in Arduino. This is not a mandatory if a digital output is not needed.
2. rtcHal_resetPinDigitalMode(void) -> disable the pullup/pulldown capability of the pin and set it as input. Put something like pinMode(INPUT) in Arduino. This is not a mandatory if a digital output is not needed.
3. rtcHal_setPinDigitalValue(uint8_t value) -> write on a user defined pin the digital value. Like the digitalWrite() in Arduino. This is not a mandatory if a digital output is not needed. This can be used only if the previous ones are fullfilled.
4. rtcHal_stopRtcTick(void) -> here must be present code that stops the timer. This is mandatory.
5. rtcHal_startRtcTick(void) -> here must be present code that starts the timer. This is mandatory.

Remember that with the UDL, some other headers might be needed for the user code delcaration, if external functions are used.

## ComboLib: integrated by default with a Timer and I2C library

#### Two Wire Interface

Using the library to interact with master requests, as an DS1307 does, the API functions shall be placed in a proper sequence. This, without a I2C library which rely on a FSM, is a bit tricky. For this reason this library contains also the I2C. If another I2C library is used, the following shall be considered to be fully compatible with the RTC fucntionality:

1. Configure the host MCU to respond to the same DS1307 address: 0x68
2. Call the rtcProtocol_freezeUserData() after the start I2C bus condition
3. Call the rtcProtocol_setUserData() after a stop or restart I2C bus condition
4. When a byte is received, before any further I2C bus command or condition (new byte, stop req, start req) is received, send it to the rtcProtocol_writeUserData(unsigned char byte).
5. When a byte is required from master, send the value returned from rtcProtocol_readUserData() before any further bus command or condition.

#### Timers

This library is released with the 3 timers handlers. In this version I have used the Timer1 which trigger an interrupt when reaching a certain compare value. The achieved precision depends on divider errors and crystal precision. To have the DS1307 functionalities, I set up the tick to be 2Hz instead one and make some controls on one tick, and increment time on the other.

So, for a 16MHz quartz oscillator, with a 16bit Timer1 and 2Hz timer tick frequency I have a prescaler of 256 and compare value of 31249:

#### $compare = \frac{16\cdot10^6 MHz}{256 \cdot 2Hz} - 1 = 31249$

where the -1 is due to the extra counting when timer goes from 31249 to 0.

The resolution is the one of the quartz which can be similat to the 32768Hz used for the RTC, but consumes more power. The other error is the real tick obtained, but in this case is not present, since 31249 is not an approximation but an integer number:

#### $f_{real} = \frac{16\cdot10^6 MHz}{256 \cdot (31249+1)} = 2 Hz$

Other error sources could be the elaoration time, but since the timer uses the system clock without interfering with the CPU resources. When the timer reaches the 31249 value, triggers a signal that interfere with the CPU generatin an IST, but timer will continue immediately from 0. This means that if we have an elaboration time lower than 500ms, there is virtually no risk on losing ticks, both of timer or 2Hz RTC.

Using the Asyncronous Timer can be also a good choice, allowing to use the low power 32768Hz crystal, but the CPU shall be clocked from this or the internal one, and one can’t use the original 16MHz timer, assuming an Arduino is used.

If you want to use your own timer application, make sure that when the timer ticks, calls the rtcProtocol tick increment API, below the example of my implementation, which call the API in the compare interrupt:

ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect)
{
rtcProtocol_tickIncrementISR();
}


## Tests

On Github are provided few Arduino sketches in order to test the RTC read, write, output pin modes and NV-RAM. Another test is made with the RaspberryPi, following instructions [written here].

Github. This library is under constant improvement.
That’s all.

# Smoked crystals (Oscillator)

Once upon a time, during a lecture about electronics, more specifically on crystal quartz oscillators, a professor said that you can break a crystal oscillator by dropping it, because the quartz inside can be broken due to the fall, even if it seems solid like a common 1/4W resistor. Let me start with a briefing on this crystal “rock piece”.

What is a crystal oscillator? You can see very well the (main) idea on Wiki. The quartz is piezoelectric material, meaning that if you apply a mechanical force on it, it will produce an electric potential. Based on its shape, the crystal is a resonator in a certain frequency (both mechanical and electrical, since it is a piezo), like a bell. But, differently from a bell, an applied voltage on that quartz, will generate a mechanical distorsion on it. On its turn, if the signal generated by the mechanical movement is amplified, sooner or later, the amplifier will detect the resonator frequency, because the mechanical distorsion will bring also a minimal vibration at that frequency: when you touch a bell, that bell will sound, even if it is a weak sound. This is transduced in voltage and only this signal is introduced in the feedback, bouding the system to oscillate at that frequency, sooner or later. The time to amplify this signal strongly enough, is the time of start-up of the crystal. In other words the crystal behaves like a series LC resonator:

in which is almost a short circuit at its resonator frequency, allowing the signal to pass unattenuated, while rapidly reducing signals outside its resonant one.

If the amplifier is inverting one, with a very high gain and very low cost, an ugly, unaccurated digital NOT port can be used, since the accuracy is instrinsic to the quartz. And is the most adopted circuit for digital electronics (like microcontrollers):

When the system is powered, the inverting port may be in metastability thanks to Rf. But this is not a stable condition and the tiny amount of resonator frequency present in the feedback will lead the amplifier to start the oscillation bounded by the crystal frequency. Since the final signal is a square wave, Rs is used to dissipate the harmonics that would be instead dissipated inside the crystal, avoiding some stress on it.

### Where were we?

All this brief introduction had the purpose to let the reader know what I’m talking about. But the fact about breaking up a crystal (these words sounds very close to Breaking Bad stuff) said in a lecture, is similar to what happened in reality and I never thought to say this. I write this to report also how electronics in domestic environment is designed in a “I don’t give a sh*t” way.

We bought recently a vacuum cleaner “centralized”, meaning that you have only one fixed aspiring motor placed outside the home, and inside only one long pipe used to clean every angle of the various rooms. This pipe is connected to the vacuum cleaner by a sort of outlet fixed in the wall: fixing the pipe on the wall, will close a circuit that will turn the motor on. This system can be controlled by a remote transmitter placed in one part of the pipe (the one that you hold), that upon user interaction will close a switch on the other side of the pipe attached to the wall, using a receiver which closes the morot circuit. Here the crap: handling a vacuum cleaner pipe, will result inevitably to banging it on the floor, at least a couple of times.

That being said, one day I heard something dancing around inside the handle of the pipe, I thought it was a piece of plastic that was broken… classic! And then no, opening the handle I found this:

Everything normal? Something is missing here. We can see the exposed crystal of the microcontroller! We can spot the metallic square shaped armor placed on the crystal, almost transparent (it is quartz, probably):

The armor trasfers the electric potential to the crystal, exploiting the piezoelectricity mentioned before. This was still working, so I searched the cover lost here around trying to fix it. And here the tiny bastard:

So, just to avoid that something else will damage the quartz, with some hot glue I covered up the crystal with its cover. A first step was searching few marks, trying to understand the original position:

Finally, the cover can be put on the top. And it still works. Perfect match, perfect glue!

### Moral

Things are designed to cost very low, and this is the price often to pay at a second turn: you can repair it or pay to repair it, or you will change it.

# NTC Measurements

When dealing with low-cost, home made termometers, the choice often fall on the NTCs. These sensors are resistors which are varying their resistance in function of the temperature, with a negative trend: Negative Temperature Coefficient is their name, also known as Thermistor. That means higher the temperature, lower the resistance:

We observe that this cheap sensor have the price to be non-linear at all. There are various methods to derive a method to interpret the correct temperature. Here I will go through the ones that are used to achieve quite reasonable precision without having/paying a calibration laboratory.

### Look-Up Table approach

Usually the datasheet provides a set of values which are sampled from a sensor and correspond to our being inside their stated tolerance:

In this picture you can see the stated resistance at a certain temperature, and its tolerance. An immediate drawback, if no other tables are available, is that this table can bring a precision of up to 5°C only. The parameter “B” is called normally $\beta$.

Moreover, a sensor with a tolerance of 5%, refers to 25°C only. This error of the resistance must be added with the “$\frac{\Delta R}{R}$ due to β toll.” factor in the table above, from now on called Δβ/β. Associated with it, there is the temperature coefficient, TCR (also known as $\alpha$), which describes how steep  is the curve. You may understand that with a very steep curve, so an high TCR, there is a little deviation of the temperature in the X axis, associated with a high variation of resistance on the Y axis therefore we have an high sensitivity. The situation is the opposite when reading high temperatures with a low TCR, the sensitivity drops rapidly.

The thermistor error of a punctual read is then devised as follow:

$\frac{\Delta R_{therm}}{R_{therm}} = (((1 + \frac{\Delta R_{25^{\circ}C}}{R_{25^{\circ}C}}) \cdot (1 + \frac{\Delta \beta}{\beta})) - 1) \cdot 100$               (eq. 1)

where $R_{25^{\circ}C}$ is the resistance tolerance at the reference temperature (specified in the datasheet, here is 25°C), and  $\beta$  is a coefficient which characterize the NTC material, devised by measuring two different temperature (and is specified in the datasheet). If we need to keep the right tolerance after changing the sensor with another of the same model without calibration, we need to observe these tolerances. Combineing them with the TCR, we obtain the temperature’s punctual error:

$\Delta T = \frac{\Delta R_{therm}}{R_{therm}} / TCR$           (eq. 2)

### Equation approach

There are a lot of methods which are used to linearize the behaviour , by linearizing the model. The most famous is the Steinhart-Hart equation, which uses a set of coefficients which are provided in two ways: from manufacturer, or can be devised by measuring 3 different temperatures and solving 3 equations for 3 unknowns. If these coeffients are not provided from manufacturer, one can use a more precise termometer, measure 3 temperatures and its resistance temperature, solving this equation for the S-H of 3rd order:

The sensor’s manufacturer adopted to experiment provides the coefficients up to 4th order, both for reversed anddirect measurement:

With a sensor stated to have 5% of tolerance, one can actually use the coefficient without the full decimal precision instead used (ideally) from the manufacturer, because the error provided by such formula is in the order of mK, while the final reading, due to various errors, is higher than 1.5K. I neglect this S-H error.

### Error estimation

Assuming a negligible error from the S-H calculus that uses the parameters given by manufacturer, usually we use a microcontroller with an ADC and a voltage divider. The error from a common ADC is half LSB, so that

$\frac{\Delta ADC}{ADC} \% = \frac{1}{2^{(N+1)}} = 0.5 LSB$     (eq. 3)

The error of the voltage divider tends to be double of the two resistors used if are too much different, otherwise tends to be the mean of the two relative errors of the two resistors, like $\frac{\Delta R1 + \Delta R2}{2}$. See the graph, where 100% is the mean value between errors of the 2 resistors, and 200% represent the sum of the 2 errors:

These two resistors are used in this way, in which one is the Thermistor:

where at the reference temperature (provided by manufacturer and usually 25°C) the Rref and Rtherm have the same value (so we bought a matched thermistor with a certain resistance to reduce errors). Depending on your temperature range, you can se how varies the the ratio and see how greater can be considered the total error.

How greater is the error in my temperature range? The previous value of $\frac{\Delta R_{therm}}{R_{therm}}$ and its TCR will lead to a temperature error like this:

in which the ADC and condition circuitry errors are NOT considered. But an idea of performance can be made if no calibration is performed (see later). If the resistance at the extremes of my range is not so different from the reference resistor (a normal fixed resistor in the schematic above), then it is not a mandatory to sum it up both errors of the two resistors, but can be a little less.

If I need to measure between 0°C and 100°C, the datasheet provides the additional error of the resistance due to the tolerance of β parameter, called Δβ/β. We will find that at 100°C there is low TCR and high relative error. ONLY NOW we can apply the worst case total error $\Delta T = \frac{\Delta R}{R} / TCR$ with $\frac{\Delta R}{R} = \frac{\Delta R_{therm 100^{\circ}C}}{R_{therm 100^{\circ}C}} + \frac{\Delta R_{ref}}{R_{ref}}$, where $R_{therm 100^{\circ}C}$ is the (eq. 1) at temperature of 100°C using the table from manufacturer, while Rref is the the fixed resistor in the schematic above and $\frac{\Delta R_{ref}}{R_{ref}}$ its relative error.

TCR will be chosen to achieve the higher relative error, so will be the TCR at 100°C (as said before, the higher temperature of the range), along with the estimated resistance value at that temperature (of course..). You may see how the error can be greatly reduced if reading values with higher TCR at lower temperatures, and how small is it at 25°C. But the boundaries must contains the greater error tolerance, allowing the user to change the sensor in the field without recalibration.

With the calibration using the set of 3 equations above, all these errors are compensated, voltage divider included. The remaining one will be truncation error of the S-H coefficients due to the finite machine precision (whether is a PC or an MCU used to make the calibration),  the errors of the reference termometer and the intrinsic errors of the S-H model, the quantization error of the ADC (half LSB) and for sure others that I have missed. It is not trivial to quantify everything. And quantification, when talking about measures, is almost everything.

We have found how greater is the error of the analog quantities. Now where is the least sensible part of the NTC curve? The one at the higher temperature, as said before (lower TCR). Until now I have estimated a certain error of the total voltage divider’s resistance.

Now is needed to find how an ADC error can mismatch the resistance. Let’s go at 100°C, using an S-H estimation or the Look-Up table, then calculate a sort of manual derivative, let’s say the value $R_{therm} = R_{100^{\circ}C} + \Delta R$, where ΔR is the immediate available step to achieve a temperature lower of a step equal to the required precision (if I want a precision of 1°C, then is the resistance at 99°C if I have the S-H equation, or it is the resistance at 95°C if I have a rough Look-Up table like the one in this article).

From the circuit of the voltage divider, we have $V_{adc1} = V_{refADC} \cdot \frac {R_{100^{\circ}C}}{R_{100^{\circ}C}+R_{REF}}$ and $V_{adc2} = V_{ref ADC} \cdot \frac {R_{100^{\circ}C} + \Delta R}{R_{100^{\circ}C} + \Delta R +R_{REF}}$. The $\frac{V_{adc1} - V_{adc2}}{V_{LSB}}$ is how many discrete steps can be sampled inside a ΔR variation. E.g., if 1LSB = 3mV (ADC provides 3mV/bit) and from 100°C to 99°C the variation read from ADC is 6mV, I can’t have an accuracy higher than 2LSB, meaning 0.5°C (2LSB to represent 1°C). If I am lower than 1LSB, I can’t discern my prefixed step lower than 1°C.

Saying the same more mathematically: consider the reference voltage applied to voltage divider to be 3V. And the datasheet provides a certain TCR at 100°C. Then the resistance at 99°C will be:

$\Delta R_{1^{\circ}C} = R_{100^{\circ}C} - R_{100^{\circ}C} \cdot \frac{TCR_{100^{\circ}C}}{100}\cdot 1^{\circ}C$

so that:

$1.5mV \leq 3V \cdot \frac{R_{100^{\circ}C}}{R_{100^{\circ}C} + R_{REF}} - 3V \cdot \frac{R_{100^{\circ}C} - \Delta R_{1^{\circ}C}}{R_{100^{\circ}C} - \Delta R_{1^{\circ}C} + R_{REF}} = \Delta V_{1^{\circ}C}$

Finally, the additional temperature error from the ADC is, in the worst case:

$\Delta T_{ADC} = \frac {1^{\circ}C}{\frac{\Delta V_{1^{\circ}C}}{0.5LSB[V]}}$         (eq. 4)

#### Conclusions

The final precision, from (eq.2) and (eq. 4), is:

$\Delta T = \frac{\frac{\Delta{R}}{R}}{TCR_{100^{\circ}C}} + \Delta T_{ADC}$

One can try and find out that with an ADC of N = 10 bit, and components at 5%, included the NTC, in range between 0°C-100°C, hardly can be achieved a precision lower than 3°C/4°C, despite the accuracy can be around 0.5°C/1°C, without calibration. But note that this low precision is due to the consideration of the range up to its most imprecise extreme: reducing the range to, let’s say, 60°C the precision can be improved a lot. Just keep that in mind when you read 25°C, or 150°C using an NTC.

# PWM and I2C libraries

I needed a flexible square waveform generator to test the behavior of a mosfet. I have in my hand a board with a PIC18 microcontroller (http://sangon.it/), so I wrote few lines of code for it. Of course, things are degenerated and I have been infected by the developer fever and is born the desire of reuse them without always opening the data-sheet. So a barely complete set of runtime variables which can be used in the provided functions has been implemented, which can be useful in a general purpose environment; only the more improbable settings, according to my opinion, are kept static with the need of recompiling libraries, if are changed.

So, in GitHub button below there are functions for all the capture/compare modules of the PIC18F47J53, but are very similar if needed to be expanded for other PIC18/xx microcontrollers. I wrote them to be compatible with the XC8 (link) compiler. The source files are timers.c and capturecompare.c with their relative haders. pwm.h is particular since simply combines the previous sources in a more elegant way.
The use is pretty straightforward, requires only to know the allowable range of variables or the implemented defines. The compiler automatically implement in memory only the functions used, but if it is not the case, a proper set of #defines is adopted, one per hardware module present on the MCU. A good requirement is to know the block diagram of the module used, in order to see the correspondences with the software, and reading the README for everything else.

I’ve put also  the first version of the I2C, since I wrote them for the DS Emulator… why not writing them in order to be reused again?

For sure I will implement the same libraries for the enhanced modules, which are still needed for my little dumb projects. Happy coding!

# DS1307 Real Time Clock hacking: the emulation

Maybe some of you knows well the so called GertDuino, an expansion board of the RaspberryPi. It is like an Arduino which can communicate with the Rasp, and moreover it also mount an Atmega48 which can be used to emulate an RTC. Yes, I’m going to talk about this.

### The challenge: proof-of-concept of commercial real time clocks emulation (DS1307).

I saw my board with a PIC18 microcontroller, that embeds an RTC module inside the microcontroller. Since I’ve recently tried the on-chip RTC capabilities of my PIC, the idea is born spontaneously: can I cheat my Pi by making it see a fake (but working) DS1307 RTC? Well, if I’m writing this, means that the answer is yes. And this, of course, can be applied to any single board computer (like Raspberry) which carry an I2C interface. This can be helpful even if you have a different microcontroller, because the software libraries can (in an ugly way) be portable! Oh, and the microcontroller which emulates the DS runs at 3V3 and it is even 5V tolerant, so no need of any adapter, when working with RaspberryPi.

### The RTC nostalgia

Dallas Semiconductor were quite known as a company which design and manufacture mixed-signal semicoductors and a lot of digital and analog complete amazing modules (like voltage references, battery handlung, real time clocks ecc). With our hands we can touch the old real time clocks inside old computers, like the firsts IBM in the Intel 80286 epoch. A lot of sweet memories with my old and still working IBM PS/2, with the (now battery drained) DS1287 (photo on the left).

Now the company has been acquired from the Maxim Semiconductor, which still produce some of their products. The RTC series still exist and will continue, as long as the driver support from embedded Linux distributions, and are currently still used in a lot of microcontroller based projects and commercial products. The firsts embedded RTCs have their own battery embedded in the package, which is called E-DIP package. They was huge and if the battery wears out, you can forget to disconnect the supply, or change the chip, or… breaking it and apply an external battery!

Apparently, a famous RTC used, especially in hobbysts and makers is the DS1307. A very basic RTC, without any alarm system capabilities. For that reason, since my microcontroller with RTC module is supporting alarm clocks too, I may need, in the future, to change and emulate a different RTC, like an DS1337. Ah, today are packed in standard DIP or small SO packages without the internal battery, but I’ve found that are still exist the E-DIP packages. Interesting.

The DS1307 works with a logical registers interface. Physically the access is made through 3 wires using the I2C bus, where the RTC is always a slave (SCL, SDA, GND). Except for the first byte on the bus, which identify the slave (here this DS has always a 0x68 bus address) plus a read/write bit mode, the real data, which can be named as payload, can be sent in writing (to DS) or retrieved in reading (from DS) mode. Refer to datasheet for details. The trick is simply to emulate the behaviour and timings. If you know it, you can become it. 😀

## Firmware and code portability

When I started writing the code for testing an EEPROM, since the need of very standard interface like the I2C, I thought to use the already written libraries from the XC8 compiler: but I found their names and usage too less intuitive and with the same time spent in learning how to use them I could write my own. So as a good exercise I wrote them and now, for this project, are also improved a bit, using a lot of defines and enumerations, allowing to increase the functionalities and simplifying their usage and writing, and keeping them quite inexpensive in terms of allocated resources. The tool used are:

• MPLAB X IDE, with the XC8 compiler (free version)
• PIC18F47J53, mounted on this italian development board, known as PIERIN Pic18.
• 32768Hz quartz, disassembled from a thermostat or so, I didn’t remember
• RaspberryPi for tests
• GitHub
• Coffee

I’ve also though that if a new microcontroller needs to be changed, the code should be portable, or at least should not be painful when porting it. So I thought to a very primitive level of abstraction layers, written in pure C. The whole code is here on GitHub.

### Abstraction Layers

The firmware is composed by three logical structures, but keep in mind that I’m talking about firmware, so are not quite imponent and distant these layers between each other, as in common PC applications:

1. The classic main and other configuration files, like interrupt, config bits ecc, that are common to other functions, not only to the DS emulation in case other tasks are implemented. Let’s call them as common layer, because is common to the other layers, it is a “vertical” layer.
2. The implementation of the higher level of the DS algorithm, that contains procedures which are calling the hardware drivers in a proper order. Name it as api layer (a very basic form of application programming interface). More functions at this level means more things done by the MCU. Here can be managed the hardware allocation for each task.
3. The drivers called and used by the previous layer, in which are present the procedures that are implementation dependent (the hardware handling). Changing the hardware means change (or add) some row in these files. So they are a basic form of hal layer (hardware abstraction layer interface).

Each of them are interacting with each other, roughly, in this way:

Thanks to the API layer, I can improve the emulator with more features and other hardware support, due to practical experimentation purposes, leading to a more enriched, open project. For sure I will need to implement a software RTC feature for platforms that don’t have that module. Last but not least, the “compass” of the emulator was this table, which is the register interface of the DS1307, one eye on the code and the other on this table:

The various defines in the code in the HAL and API layers are related to this table. Those definitions are not well compartmentalized from one layer to another, because I thought to be more flexible w.r.t. emulator platform rather than the emulated object itself. Nevertheless, a new emulated object will bring to a complete review of the layers, because different APIs are needed as much as a different hadware (the HAL) behavior as different are the required procedures of the driver.

## Hardware setup and demo tests

Now it’s time to test if everything works. I started directly on the RaspberryPi using the hwclock routines from terminal and its embedded I2C module. Strange things happened, from writing an year and reading another to get the Pi freaking out due to detected error configurations on the DS. So more simple functions were needed to test it, in a very fast way. Here my old school Arduino Duemilanove became very useful, by using and adapting some DS1307 libraries, to run a complete test of basic interactions, check the change of settings and play with the NVRAM.

### Coherence and settings tests

Few main bugs in my code are find by using some Arduino libraries. But I used them to see the first heart beat. The Adafruit RTClib, where some of them are modified to fit my first alive tests. Then a code from a guy on Instructables, I’ve just googled for a testing function. Taken the I2C pins A4 for the SDA and A5 for the SCK from the Arduino, and connecting them to my Pierin, I finally make the PIC18 seen by the Arduino. But it was frozen. Of course, I forgot the little brother, the timekeeping crystal on RC0 and RC1 oscillator pins.

And then, it started breathing:

The doctor said – time of birth: 12pm, 48′ and 53″. The date was taken using the RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__)); call. Moreover, I can easily test the output pin functionalities, halting the clock, change output settings and  testing the NVRAM by using the RTClib. At this stage, the difference with the original DS1307, is the frequency at the output of RTC pin. It is not a bug, but the PIC hardware support only 2 modes instead of 4. If needed, can be done easily in software, but now, as stated in the first title, I’m at a proof-of-concept phase. Below there is the output pin table of DS1307 with shaded modes that are not currently available in this emulated module:

### RaspberryPi: connection and setup

The systems which will use this emulator would be also any computer with an I2C port. Here, a Raspberry Pi is very appropriate. I’ve the RPi B rev.2, so I’ve used the I2C module 1, using pins 2 and 3 (plus GND and 3V3) of the R2 reference. Connections are made by taking care, in testing phase with PIC18 powered by my PC, to have the ground in common with all systems and then connecting the SCL1 and SDA1 ports of the PIC to the respectively GPIO2 and 3 of the Pi:

Now it is needed the software setup under  Linux (here Raspbian). One can follow the standard steps for the DS1307 written everywhere, but sometimes bad things happens. Here my final setup (I would to thanks the source http://en.gnublin.org/index.php/RTC_DS1307).

1. Firstly check if the RTC bus is alive, by typing sudo i2cdetect -y 1:
2. Then enter in bash mode by typing sudo bash and only then type echo ds1307 0x68 > /sys/bus/i2c/devices/i2c-1/new_device to put on the i2c bus 1 a new device called ds1307 at address 0x68. This data is being used by the Hwclock procedures. If an error arise try to remove something, like echo 0x68 > /sys/bus/i2c/devices/i2c-1/delete_device and repeat the new device insertion.
3. Load the already present (it should be) module “ds1307” to the kernel using (I did it in bash mode but it is not a mandatory) modprobe rtc_ds1307 2>/dev/null 1>&2. The numbers are meaning that the standard error (2) is trashed and write the output (1) also in in stadard error. This allow the hwclock utility to avoid problem related to “IOCTL” not working calls in which you can step into, and it is used to keep trace of the output of commands without printing them on the screen.
4. ONLY IF YOU GET ERRORS WITH HWCLOCK: To avoid further problems, which are not taken into accout by the standard guides, it is needed to add the physical rtc device, which often is not present, allowing problems of ioctl type. I’ve added to rtc0 by typing: mknod /dev/rtc0 c 253 0 2>/dev/null 1>&2.
5. Check with dmesg that is something positive like this:
[ 5061.101787] rtc-ds1307 1-0068: rtc core: registered ds1307 as rtc0
[ 5061.101837] rtc-ds1307 1-0068: 56 bytes nvram
[ 5061.101895] i2c i2c-1: new_device: Instantiated device ds1307 at 0x68
6. For verification purposes, typing lsmod should output the rtc_ds1307 module somwehere.

Now exit from bash, and if you want you can setup a script from the linked Gnublin source. I didn’t test it. Now, if you need to test the device using the i2c utilities, you need to delete the device (step 2) to free the bus address reservation. There is not much to show on photos, but I put my test bench just to make this article a bit more coloured. 🙂

And the tick is got.

### Unix epoch and misunderstandings

A curious thing is related to the date previous to year 2000. If I have the 1970 as starting date (the first year of the Unix epoch), issuing the hwclock -w will write this date to the RTC. But any read was wrong, giving back the year 2066. Writing manually the registers produces a normal results, so the only conclusion, since these RTC are supporting dates from years 00 (2000) to 99 (2099), the hwclock is making something that is misunderstood since will work on more than 8bit to represent that value, but the RTC understand this as a 2066 due to some millennim transformation. In fact, with date from 2000 to 2038 everithing is fine and surprisingly everything it is not my fault. But why 2038? Don’t get me wrong, the RTC module can handle dates to 2099 correctly, but any Unix derived OS can not. In fact, I’ve sperimented that dates (dd/mm/aaaa format) until the 19/01/2038 03.14.08 am are correct. But the second later the end of the Unix epoch, any read will indroduce a mismatch error. And any set over this date is notified to be… correctly wrong. All this is because the timebase variable which keep tracks of the total seconds from the 01/01/1970 12.00.00 midnight, is a 32bit signed and will wrap at that date in 2038. That will be the thirtyennium bug or whatever, but I doubt that the world will collapse in a black hole. Here, is what an end of epoch will appear:

If you wake up in the morning, without smog, smarthphones, computers and in the street you see only stagecoaches and horses with gentleman or a huge poverty, well, probably you have travelled in time. In the meantime, the others will see on their PC/smartphone/ecc clocks this awkward date. There are many proposed solutions, but it is not a trivial thing.

## Future improvements and lessons learned

During this trip I’ve discovered how powerful can be an on-chip module, how much can be simplified the programmer’s life and firmware execution. Since I’m an electronic engineer at heart, I’ve made some progress in the coding art, despite it still look not so perfect. And with the excuse of debugging the I2C bus, I’ve finally bought the PicKit 3 and my life became easy and free from bootloaders or fuse registers unchangeable.

As soon as I can I’ll try to implement the alarm part, which can be used to trigger stuff on the GPIOs of the RPi. In this way I may need to became compatible with another version of Dallas Semiconductor real-time clock.

And now, getting involved in bus protocols and by discovering how powerful can be just an 8-bit microcontroller, how is difficult to fill even 5KB of flash and with the help of past experieces, new ideas are under development. As an engineering mind is in constant motion.

Follows DS1307 RTC hacking part 2 HERE.