The classic hardware hacking: ATX power supply

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If you like playing with lab instruments, enjoy to make things and design electronic stuff, you are probably attracted from the idea of create a new powerful (with some limitations) bench power supply by using an old ATX supply. Moreover, I need an high power supply to test my motors. For sure, building your own (not switching like this one) is possible and far more instructive.

WARNING

You should follow this and/or other guides related to high voltages only if you know what you are doing. It is also a good thing to know the Ohm’s law and dimensioning a resistor to light up an LED. Remember that inside the PSU there are high voltages, potentially deadly. Despite I’ll not try to manipulate these voltages, the insulation integrity must be kept. Do this hack at your own risk! See also the disclaimer.

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Let’s start

Firstly, in case it is not clear, you need to find an old ATX power supply of a PC that you don’t use anymore. Usually it’s always a low cost supply, those that will never reach powers that are mant to be supported. Those sold to be, for example, 300W can output more than 200W nicely, with a lot of voltage combinations but with some drawbacks: without adding some hardware, are neither voltage nor current adjustable. This means that if you short something on your low power PCB, you can destroy it because it will source all its possible current. This is a situation that a bench born power supply will avoid.

TIP: when you buy an ATX power supply of a “generic” chinese sub-brand, apply a security factor of 0.5 when planning the power budget of your PC, usually they can stand a stable current/voltage which is usually far less than what is written.

Then let’s open it and see what’s inside. This one is a “chinese” one, with no EMI filters nor a power factor corrector.  Considering that my version of hacking will have all cables tied inside, that can arise an heat problem which is ignored right now, because can be easily solver later, after the completion of the bench supply.

Here you can see the missing filters, along the uncomfortable soldered fuse:

no_emi

But never mind, I continue, aware that this power supply can be not compliant with some RF constraints. If the final job is accomplished, I’m are already happy.

I cut out all the connectors and applied as many holes on the chassis as I need (see the bottom of this article). I’ve considered 3 indicators (+5VSB orange LED, 230VAC orange neon lamp and a green Power Good LED indicator). Other holes should be dedicated to the voltages I want to obtain. I used a normal drill, so was quite difficult to obtain the holes. Everyone must sadly arrange with what is present at home. But just rember that there are so many ways to implement your own implementation, and mine can be done more cleverly than what I’ve realized at the end.

Connectors and signals

Since those power regulators are very complex, I’m limiting to check the compliance with the ATX standard and follow that to manage the few control signals. For that same safety reason, this “hacking” does not involve any modification to the original PCB.

The ATX (version 1 and 2) follow the ATX standard to define control signals and some internal regulations. At the www.formfactors.org can be found the full specification of the connectors that we’re facing to. Mine is version one, you can check by googling or referring to ATX standard to understand what version you have in your hands.

connATX

I’ve to identify all common voltages, like +-5V, +-12V, 3V3, COM ecc and cut out the connectors. Then merged all the same voltages togheter. Since the GNDs wires are too much, I’ve split them in two separate threads of wires. I’ve joined the cables with the same voltage and appllied some solder tin to make the pin of merged cable stronger. Then I’ve soldered them to the crimp connector which will be inserted to the back of banana connector that I used (below the crimp is pointed by the black arrow), and closed everything in a thermo shrinking rubber, if the crimp does not already have some “protection”. This gives a mechanical strenght and electrical insulation. It looks not perfect, but it’s very solid and easy to mount. The tin on the bolt has no meaning, as you may see there are few signs of experimentation on alternative fixing leading to melting some plastic, but neglect them.

merged

Remember, depending on what you want to obtain, to keep apart the VIOLET cable (+5VSB), the GREEN and GREY and one +5V RED cable. As one can easily check holding the original connector, those are the voltage of Stand-By, +5VSB, used to power up some peripheral of your PC like the PS2 keyboard, some of USB connectors and the auxiliary functions on the motheboard. See:

atx_connReading the specifications of the ATX, the Green and the Grey are used to provide a digital TTL signal on the PS_ON#, being low to start the supply and can left float, by defined by the standard, to assert it high (if the PSU is designed properly, otherwise you can use a 10KΩ pull-up resistor, here is not needed though), then, when voltages are considered stable, an high TTL signal is readable from the PWR_OK. But if I want to use this signal to light up an LED I need a transistor. Here I will use a switch to turn on the system, which will tie the GREEN cable to GND and I will use a BC337 bjt to receive the OK signal to drive the LED, because the TTL port can sink up to 4mA which are too few to bright an LED correctly. Moreover, since I want to light-up the LED when the signal is high, the TTL port can source a max current of 200uA with a 1KΩ  resistance: a bjt is totally needed.

A FACT: The LED will turn on very dimly without using the BJT, so maybe more than 200uA are provided and the TTL can go lower than 5V. Even using a BJT can absorb more than 200uA to keep the transistor saturated; it could work in the active region, but I don’t like it when it is needed just to visualize the presence of a digital status. Ideally could be a MOSFET, but I’ve no one which works at a signal level. What can I do?

I’ve seen that LED has turn on dimly because there was at least 1mA.  Digging in the circuit, I discovered that this is the output of an LM393 comparator: it can sink only, in other words the logic high signal is provided by a simple pullup resistor.

Once all connections of the schematic below are made “on the air” I’ve closed every thing in the magic shrinking rubber as it’s reported on images below.

One thing on dimensioning the circuit:

The power dissipated by BJT is devised by multiplying the collector current by the voltage drop. Here Ic=15mA (see Icsat formula below) and Vcesat = 0.7V; so P = Ic*Vcesat = 10mW and to be safe we can consider it at least 3 times, P = 30mW. Datasheet says that the TO-92 package can dissipate 200°C/W and provide a graphical representation, with a maximum temperature of 150°C. Yes, at 25°C I can dissipate more than 600mW, but it will burn if you turn off your air conditioner: what are my ranges? 30mW means an increase of 6°C, which means that the power supply can stay lower 144°C. If I will get to that temperature, the problem is somewhere else. So everything is good.

Of course I want to use the BJT in saturation, so to keep the BC337 Vce under the saturation value, I need to provide some high base current. The Vcesat = 0.7 V by datasheet, obtaining a saturation current of Icsat = (5V – 0.7V – 1V)/(220Ω) = 15 mA, where 220Ω is the LED resistor and the LED drops by 1V the voltage. To devise the base current we apply an overdrive factor of 10, obtaining a beta = 100/10 = 10, where saturation beta is 100. This lead to a base resistor of (5 – 0.7)V/1.5mA <= 2533 Ω. The overdrive will cover the BJT approximations. I put a 1.8KΩ resistor in the base, added to the 680Ω already mountend to be the pullup of the comparator.

Good. And in fact, the LED looks pretty bright. A way to think: the current should be limited by the resistor and not limited by the BJT, when used in saturation.  🙂

See images below.

bc
bc_holdings

While the monitoring of the +5VSB can be made simply attaching an LED (orange here) to see if is present, just a series resistor is put (allowing some mA, like 10/15mA). But, be aware to create a fork of the Violet cable, since here there is only one wire and we want also to use this voltage as output for the bench supply! As shown below. The arrow indicates the LED connected to the blue cable derived from the violet (see the fork from violet to blue on the left image), and the series resistor is hidden under some shrinking rubber (not visible here).

Due to lack of dimension of holdings dedicated to LEDs (because I used a drill which was not the proper one to be used to make holes on chassis), those LEDs can’t be fixed mechanically in the holes. So I just glue them on the respective holes. You can now insert the banana connectors in the other holes and screw in the bolt to keep the crimp connector (the one indicated before with the black arrow) strongly attached to the back of banana ones. I also directly connected to the 230VAC an orange neon bulb to see always if there is AC line inserted. Insulated with a proper not home-made holder.

Things to keep in mind

Oh yes! There is a remaining one +5V cable. This is used to power up some dummy resistors. If you search in the web, you can find the general advice to use a load resistor of 5W or 10W of 10Ω. I’m not always agree with that.

Depending on the power supply used, you may need to power a dummy load to the 12V or 3.3V. Usually for old ATX power supply like mine the 5V should be loaded. Here I’m referring to this voltage, but situation can vary with other PSUs.

The resistor is used to let flow some current from the +5V rail and close the loop of voltage regulation feedback, which is applied the the +5V also to regulate the other rails (3V3, 12V ecc). Since I don’t want to waste energy and generate uselss heat in the resistor, I measured the stability and the absolute value of voltages by varying the resistor. I came up with a minimum current which is arount 100mA that seems sufficient to keep the supply stable. So I used 4 resistors of about 38Ω to obtain a final equivalent resistor of the same value but able to support twice the power of the single component (2 series pair of resistors, each with a parallel of two single resistors). I also check by removing the PCB if the grounding was directly connected to the chassis and it is. So the chassis screws can be used to close the circuit. The space is precious here. Also, the resistors are not quite hot, so it’s ok. The white tape in the picture has insulation purposes, underneath wires are soldered, of course.

dummy_res

Final result

I put some effort to keep the airflow as clean as possible, the heatsink on the left has also a couple of wings that are bended to not touch cables too heavily. For now, seems that there are no heating issues. All voltages are good  enough excepts for negative ones: could be my fault, but they were few mV under the nominal value also when the power supply was used in a real PC, prior to any modification. The technical reason is that this power supply is a crappy one. The whole result is posted here below.

wires

DSCN3931

lit_up

A clever thing could be use the hole on the front to hold the switch. I didn’t, I’ve complicated my life uselessly, cutting a piece of metal (the one on the relief) to give a shape on the space where the switch slides, because the rectangular shaped hole was not perfect at all. But holes for screws were quite nice and the switch is fixed strongly on the chassis.

What I’ve learned

As you may notice, I wanted to have a power supply which was blue. So I spent a week trying to painting it and learning all steps to achieve a durable paint on a metal chassis. I’ve also tried to paint some letters on the top to make them visible inside the blue main paint, just for experimenting some painting techniques. I used the primer to allow me use the spray can to cover the whole chassis with this blue that you can see. And it’s not perfect at all the whole result. But I’ve never painted a chassis before and I feel satisfied.

The whole hacking, at the end, has taught me basics about painting. Yes, agree, WTF! 🙂

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